A study by the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) has again recognized Amsterdam as the European capital of MDMA (ecstasy) and crack cocaine.
EMCDDA analysis of wastewater and drugs in European cities
As part of a study of drug residues in wastewater across Europe, the EMCDDA analyzed wastewater in 75 cities in 17 countries. Samples were collected and tested for traces of cocaine, cannabis, amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDMA, which allowed researchers to determine the use of different drugs in each city.
This year, the EMCDAA found that drug use varies greatly from country to country, with the highest levels of cocaine in Western and Southern Europe and the highest levels of amphetamine and MDMA in northern Europe.
According to this year’s study, the Netherlands has some of the highest levels of cocaine, amphetamines, MDMA and, not surprisingly, cannabis.
Amsterdam is the European capital of MDMA and crack cocaine
Although it was not the only Dutch city to participate in the study, Amsterdam certainly became one of Europe’s drug capitals. Together with Antwerp, Amsterdam’s wastewater was found to have the highest levels of cocaine, as well as second in cannabis levels and third in cocaine levels.
The Dutch capital has seen a slight decline in MDMA in 2021 – most likely as a result of various restrictions imposed during the coronavirus pandemic and the forced closure of nightclubs and bars – but it remains the capital of ecstasy in Europe.
Both Utrecht and Eindhoven also showed high levels of MDMA in wastewater, ranking second and fourth respectively. Relatively high levels of amphetamine (sixth place overall) were also found in Utrecht, while Eindhoven reported higher concentrations of cannabis (ninth place) and cocaine (10th place).